Danish version 

The Author  
Map and Overview
Fortification overview

Defence of Copenhagen
The Persons behind
The  Mobilisation 1914
Attack against Denmark

The Northern Defence Line
The Forts
The Batteries
The Flooding
The Positions

The Naval and Coastal Forts
The 1. Defence Line
The 2. Defence Line
The 3. Defence Line

The Western Defence Line
The Principles
 The Profile
The Caponiere
The Batteries
The Storing Facilities

The Tune Position
Modern Warfare
The Aerial War
The Position
The Mosede Fort
The Foxholes
The Galleries
The Trenches     
The Artillery
The Air Defence    
The Camps and Barracks
Other Facilities
After WW I
The Present Remains



The Fortifications of Copenhagen

 The purpose of the Tune position  

The construction was guided by the latest developments in modern warfare. The Tune Position did not basically break with previous observations of the latest fortification decades. The value of advanced works was well known, and they were conscious of the need of  keeping hostile artillery from the army and the Capitol.  And the Northern Front was exactly built with advanced forts - supported by underlying batteries and positions.In connection with the construction of the Western Enceinte there had also been plans about constructing a advanced fort at Vallensbaek. The hole purpose with the Tune Position was to advance the defense to a distance from Copenhagen, where modern artillery could not reach it.

The Tune Position came to live up to the last known experiences and principles of the First World War. The overriding principle was the big fields with barbed wire flanked by small cavities (bunkers with two recoil guns and a floodlight) and the slightly larger galleries (bunkers with up to 8 man crew). The fire of the flanking recoil guns on the barbed wire areas was precisely the tactic that had required large casualties among the attacking forces in particular the trenches in France. Between caves and galleries, there were regular trenches alongside the barbed wire, from where the infantry could counterattack. The area in front of the position could off cause be aken under fire by the underlying artillery.

The latest weapon technical and commanding experiences were used during the the construction. Intelligence from the battlefields came slowly but surely back to the Staffs. And there were much to report on. The battlefields af World War one were laboratory bench for the firearms industry - with huge losses to follow. The military principles could not be revised as fast as the new discoveries - and the battlefield swarmed with new creepy arms.

                                 The machine gun with its flanking fire had a terible
  effect on the advancing troops, delayed   in no mans
  land by the barbed wire.
  It is estimated, that 5,5 mill. soldiers died due to this
  weapon during WW I.


                                            Gas (1914-15), at first a relatively harmless teargas,
  but later huge amounts of debilitating and deadly
  chlorine- and mustardgas



  1) Handgrenade(William Mills 1915), Usefull aganst
     advancing troops from the trench.

  2) Eeg handgrenade with black powder



                                                        The Flame-thrower.
  Usefull against trenches and small positions.


  The Tank (Tank is the original code-
  name for it)
  Able to pass barbed wire and trenches
  in front of the advancing troops.



  The Aeroplane.
  Able to observe for the artillery and
  attack targets with bombs.

  Barbed wire instead of natural barriers
  such as thorns and brambles.
15-20 metres wide.

This new kind og warfare favored brand new requirements for Blur and camouflage instead of sitting behind thick concrete walls, waiting that the enemy came so close that you could fire him.
Now the troops and the arms were hidden until they appeared unexpectedly by an attack.

                                              Gone were the old colorful uniforms. Gone were the ending rows and columns, that with felled bayonet went marching to the final run om the enemy - often fired upon by artillery or attacked by dragoons.

Gone were the magnificent forts with their surrounding batteries, replaced by humble muddy trenches, caves, galleries and miles of barbed wire. Cuppolas disappeared and were replaced with batteries hidden behind hills and slopes - often shooting indirectly against an enemy that was only visible for the observer.