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Maps and Overview
       Maps
      
Fortification overview

Historic      
     
Defence of Copenhagen
      
The Persons behind
      
The  Mobilisation 1914
     
German Attack ??

     
The Northern Defence Line
      
The Forts
     
The Batteries
      The Flooding
s
      The Positions


The Naval and Coastal Forts
      
The 1. Defence Line
      
The 2. Defence Line
      
The 3. Defence Line


The Western Defence Line
     
The Principles
    
The Profile
     T
he Caponiere
    
The Batteries
    
The Storing Facilities
 

The Tune Stronghold
       A New Kind of War
       The Air War

      
The Position
      
The Mosede Fort
      
The Foxholes
      
The Galleries
      
The Trenches     
      
The Artillery
      
The Air Defence    
      
The Camps and Barracks
      
Other Facilities
      
Map
      
After WW I
      
The Present Remains

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                                                         The Fortifications of Copenhagen
 

The Fortress History of Copenhagen 1150 - 1872

Europe has not been the quiet and peaceful place we consider it today.

Special in the middle ages and the years to come, every major city was heavily fortified.
Great mounds, sometime combined with moats and palisades, defended by heavy artillery, archers and infantry.

The Danish capitol of Copenhagen has been fortified since it was founded in the 12-th century. Placed at the western bank of the narow Øresund it was of cause target for both trade and war.
Copenhagen was founded as a little trade- and fishing community. The capitol at that time was Roskilde in the middle of the island of Zeeland, where Copenhagen also is situated on the eastern coast.
At that time a very central position in the kingdom. (Both Sweden and Norway belonged to the Danish Crown)

At first the fortress around Copenhagen (1150) only was some wooden palisades, and later in the 15. Century the second fortress was made.
The second fortress of Copenhagen was a mound around the city, with wide moats in front. In the mounds there were 4 gates to the city. They were named after their geographical situation to the city, Eastern Gate, Western Gate and Northern Gate. The fourth was named after the Island of Amager: Amager Gate.

 

 

        Miniature af billedet Vesterport byder den rejsende velkommen! Portgen set udefra  ca. 1750
    The Western Gate
           (1750)
    Miniature af billedet Nørreport 1671, håndtegning af Samuel C. Gedde
 The Northern Gate
             (1671)



    
   The Eastern Gate


The Amager Gate
  
  In 1626 building the Citadel "Frederikshavn" began in the northern part of the fortress ring.
  It was supposede to protect the city from the seaside.
                            
                                 
           
                           The pentagon Citadel "Frederikshavn"
                                  To day brought back to almost original 1660.
                                  One of the best preserved citadels of Northern
                                  Europe and still active as headquarter
                                  for some military units
.
                                         

  The fortification of Copenhagen 1801.
  English map form the battle of Copenhagen.
  (Admiral Parker, Vice admiral Nelson and
  Danish naval hero Niels Juel)
  The Citadel is the little pentagon in the right
  side of the map.

  At that time the city-gates were opened in the morning for travelers to the city and farmers for the city markets. At night the gates was closed and heavily guarded. In front of the gates there were small inns, where people who came to late to enter the gate could spend the night until
 the gate was opened in the morning.
 
 
                  The Inn "The Black Horse" from 1771 was
                       situated at the Western Gate.
                       The building is preserved and still excists.
 

 


 
     In 1659 the moads resisted a swedish siege and attack.
 

 
                 The moats and ramparts couldn't
 
                 protect Copenhagen in 1807, when
 
                 The British Navy bombarded the
                  city from the sea.
 
                 The first terror-bombardment
 
                 against civilians in the history
 
                 of war.

 
  


 
Brandraketter af den Congrevske type. Orlogsmuseet.
Fire-Rockets invented by Sir William Congreve.
  In 1852, the old moats were given up. Until this time the city was build up behind the moads, and the population was growing rapidly.. To many people, little space, open sewers and poor hygiene led to epidemics. Plaque in 1711 (30% died)  and in 1853  Cholera and some smaller epidemics of Smallpox and Scarlet Fever. 
 
                                      The center of Copenhagen was
                                              both dark and unhealthy in the
                                              late 19'th. century.


The New Fortification

 After the partly successful war against Prussia in 1848 Denmark lost the second Prussian War in 1864. The army saw the results of effective and
 modern siege-artillery and how vulnerable moads are, when
not protected by guns and infantry.

                                                         

 Picture from 1864.
 Part of the destroyed stronghold at Dybbøl

 The Second Prussian War in 1864 was a disaster, and Denmark lost 20 % of its territory.

 
 
Copenhagen 1868. The city already has grown outside the moads.
Demolishing the old city walls was necessary, and in
1876, construction of the new third fortificatition of Copenhagen began. 
To day the Tivoli Lake is part of the old moats